Automation and smart control systems for Industrial applications
Msc AHMED IBRAHIM JABER
Departement of power and Machines Engineering
Automation or automatic control,
is the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching on telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications and vehicles with minimal or reduced human intervention. Some processes have been completely automated.The biggest benefit of automation is that it saves labor; however, it is also used to save energy and materials and to improve quality, accuracy and precision. Automation has been achieved by various means including mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, electronic devices and computers, usually in combination. Complicated systems, such as modern factories, airplanes and ships typically use all these combined techniques. Industrial control system is a general term that encompasses several types of control systems and associated instrumentation used in industrial production, including supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, distributed control systems, and other smaller control system configurations such as programmable logic controllers (PLC) often found in the industrial sectors and critical infrastructures. Industrial control systems are typically used in industries such as electrical, water, oil, gas and data.The industrial automation application is presented in the following diagram represented in fig. 1
Fig 1 Ethernet based
Within this level there are mainly PC-based systems used (so-called industrial PC, available as desktop, rack-mounted and panel PCs), equipped with standard OS (e.g., Windows-embedded) and supplier-specific industrial process-control software for process parameterization and visualization
This level describes the automation systems (programmable logic controller – PLC) where automation programs are executed.
The field level describes all terminal equipment such as sensors (optical, magnetic, thermal, etc.) and actuators (magnetic valves, power switches, motor starters, etc.).