By: Marwa Mohammed Jawad
The smart grid is a contemporary technology for electricity system utilizing a variety of technologies from, computer-based remote control, communications, sensors, and automation to improve the electricity system in different aspects like the reliability, security, flexibility, safety, and efficiency  . It is characterizing by the two-way stream of electricity and data to be able of observing and supervisory all the grid through using the smart meters that provide the data in the actual time for better controlling on the demand and supply of the energy as well as the services. Furthermore, it is providing the incorporation between the smart applications and the client devices where the smart grid uses the communication to collect the information and the data for utilized them in the controlling and managing the grid and in this way, it will be the identification of needless or irrational obstacles to implementation of smart grid technology and services. In addition, this technology simplifies the using of renewable resources, the storing of energy, the electrical and hybrid electrical supported vehicles, management the data and exchange the energy data  . It is also participating to reduce the pollution of air.
A smart grid could represent more than generated, transmitted and distribution of power. it may represent an ecosystem for all the utility side, producers, service providers, government, and customer that they are a distributing in running the smart grid with helping the various of the technologies. so, the smart grid could be defined as the electrical grid that it is based on the interaction between the customer and the utility by using the smart devices and variety of technology. The cooperation between the customer and the utility side has provided significant benefits to increasing the reliability of grid where the customers have the ability to make a decision about the consumption in meanwhile the utility side have the capability to manage the demand for the electrical energy by analysis the customer behavior using the smart devices. Therefore, there are many aspects that have a significant effect on the smart grid such as the economic, security, environment, politic and industry.
 P. Murphy, D. McFadden, M. Angemeer, K. Major, D. Collie, J. Nathwani, et al., "Enabling tomorrow's electricity system: report of the Ontario Smart Grid Forum," Ontario. Independent Electricity System Operator, Tech. Rep, 2010.
 M. Keogh, "The Smart Grid: Frequently Asked Questions for State Commissions," ed: May 2009.