The beginning of electronics development

Sadeq Adnan Hbeeb

Department of Communication Engineering

The advent of electronics at the end of the 19th century was carried out in 1850 by the German scientist Geissler, where he experimented with running electricity in a glass tube completely discharged from the air. He found that if the air was removed from the glass tube, it shines when an electric current passes through it. Sir William Grooks completed the experiments, which found that the current passing through a tube completely discharged from the air consisted of particles that was in 1878, and then years after the experiments were done in 1890 the electron was discovered. Then the French physicist Perrin proved that the electric current consists of motion of negatively charged particles in a given direction. The properties of these particles were then measured by the Thomson physicist, and these charged particles were negatively charged by electrons, and in 1909 the American physicist Milikan measured charge of electron. Following these important discoveries in the electronic charge movement, the era of electronics began. In 1904, the scientist Flaming invented a vacuum tube that allowed only one-way flow of power, called a flaming valve or a "diode vacuum tube, it was used to detect electromagnetic waves, years late , in 1907 a Canals American scientist (Lee Deforts) discovers a tube that amplifies the  alternating electrical signals (electrical a.c signals), was launched this invention triode (triode vacuum tube). After a few years of these tremendous achievements, the triode was manufactured and the oscillator circuits were used in 1915. These circuits have been used in telephone conversations and in this important invention, telephone communication between different continents. A year later, in 1916, a German engineer invented a tetrode, the invention of the four-valve led to the invention of the first television called Kinscope, in 1920 by an American researcher. As a result of the outbreak of the Second World War, there has been a significant development in the manufacture of various kinds of micro-valves. Some of these valves were used in the manufacture of radar systems and in the development of communication systems. This was in 1939, invented in Britain by magnetron, In the radar system. In the same year, two American scientists, Russell and Varian, invented the Klystron microwave tube, which is used as a radar transmitter and is particularly used for mobile target radar detectors using the Doppler effect, and then invented an American scientist 1943 The traveling wave tube, a special vacuum valve used in the field of electronics to amplify RF signals in the field of microwave waves. Then, the era of solid state electronics began with the invention of the transistor in 1947 at the Bell laboratory. The transistor was commercially produced in 1951 and manufactured by General Electric, Westinghouse, Westrn Electric, Rythesn , RCA. In 1958, the era of silicon semiconductors and germanians began to be used in the construction of the inner circuit called the monolithic circuit, where the resistors were installed or manufactured by deploying a semiconductor to a different semiconductor. The capacitors were installed using a metal layer and a semi-conductor material was used in plate formation and a layer of oxide in a similar layer. In 1959 Robert Norton Noyce gave important ideas in the invention of integrated circuits (IC) by reducing the size, weight and cost of internal parts of semiconductor devices and was credited with the invention of integrated circuits (IC).


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