Introduction about human rights. The literal and linguistic definition of rights. The historic development of the human rights concept. The appearance of Islam and the basis of human right. Europe and human rights. The concept of human in the material civilization. The concept of human in Islam. The status of human in the modern civilization. The status of human in Jurisprudence. The features of human rights in the Islamic intellectuals. The main rules that organize human rights. Admitting of rights under the authority of the modern state of law. The intellectual base of the principle of rights and freedoms in Islam. Properties and the nature of rights and freedoms in Islam. The non-organized rights and freedoms in Islam.
The social rights and freedoms. The individual rights in the state security as the right of getting job. The administrative corruption. The equality in Islam. The equality in Law. The equality in Judiciary and Employment. The financial corruption. The equality in the public costs and burdens. The rights of human in Iraqi law. The general rights of individuals especially those rights related to human morals. The individuals freedoms related to their material interest. The Arab chart for human rights. The articles from (1-40) of the universal Declaration. The articles from (1-40) of the universal Declaration. The articles from (1-40) of the universal Declaration.
Development of Computers. Computer Components. Microsoft Windows: User Interface, Turn off Computer, Control with Windows, Quick menu of Desk Top, Making and delete Folders, Menu of right – click of Folders, Control Panel, Menu of right – click of Task bar, Additional. Microsoft Office: Start and exit, Define menu, Tools Bar, Make and safe file, view File, Format texts, Insert Symbols and Numbers, Insert Pictures, Make tables, Page Setup, Documents Print.
Practical Part: Introduction. Application of Microsoft Windows. Application of Microsoft Office.
Introduction :Part of Speech. Reading of Numerals and Simple Equations. Exercises. Reading Passages: Properties of engineering materials. Exercises. Electronic systems. Exercises. Telecommunication system components. Exercises. Microwave and radio frequency components. Exercises. Grammar Points: The Present Tense. The present continuous Tense. The present perfect. The future Tense. Passive voice. Some prefixes used in scientific English. The Position of adjectives. The Position of adverbs. The relative pronouns (which) and (that). Joining sentences with conjunctions. Notes on writing a laboratory reports
Introduction : Arabic language –Origin, formal and slang , translations and usual mistakes. Basic Arabic writing skills and its major roles. Arabic dictionaries and how to use it. Sentences and their types in Arabic tongue. Arabic sentence structure and safe constructed sentence in Arabic language. How to write a paragraph. How to write a report using the right Arabic sentences. Applications
Functions: Functions and Their Graphs. Shifting and Scaling Graphs. Trigonometric Functions. Exponential Functions. Inverse Functions and Logarithms. Limits and Derivatives: Rates of Change and Tangents to Curves. Limit of a Function and Limit Laws. Precise Definition of a Limit. One-Sided Limits. Continuity. Limits Involving Infinity, Asymptotes of Graphs. Differentiation: Tangents and the Derivative at a Point. The Derivative as a Function. Rules for Polynomials, Exponentials, Products, and Quotients. The Derivative as a Rate of Change. Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions. The Chain Rule. Implicit Differentiation. Derivatives of Inverse Functions and Logarithms. Inverse Trigonometric Functions. Related Rates. Linearization and Differentials. Applications of Derivatives. Integration: Areas and Distances. The Definite Integral. Indefinite Integrals and the Net Change Theorem. The Substitution Rule. Areas between Curves. Volumes. Volumes by Cylindrical Shells. Work. Average Value of a Function. Techniques of Integration: by Parts. Trigonometric Integrals. Trigonometric Substitution. Integration of Rational Functions by Partial Fractions. Using Tables. Improper Integrals. Parametric Equations and Polar Coordinates: Curves Defined by Parametric Equations. Calculus with Parametric Curves. Polar Coordinates. Areas and Lengths in Polar Coordinates. Conic Sections. Conic Sections in Polar Coordinates. Complex Numbers: Definitions: real and imaginary parts. Complex arithmetic. Geometry of complex numbers. The polar-coordinate representation of complex numbers. Exponential notation and Euler’s formula. The nth roots of a complex number
First-Order Differential Equations: Solutions, Slope Fields, and Euler's Method. First-Order Linear Equations. Graphical Solutions of Autonomous Equations. Systems of Equations and Phase Planes. Vectors and the Geometry of Space: Three-Dimensional Coordinate Systems. Vectors. The Dot Product. The Cross Product. Lines and Planes in Space. Cylinders and Quadric Surfaces. Vector-Valued Functions and Motion in Space: Curves in Space and Their Tangents. Integrals of Vector Functions; Projectile Motion. Arc Length in Space. Curvature and Normal Vectors of a Curve. Tangential and Normal Components of Acceleration. Velocity and Acceleration in Polar Coordinates
The industrial safety, Tools of instrument (such as vernier caliper), Micrometer as tool of measurement .The general idea about abrasion and its type. The tools and materials that used in abrasion. General idea about some materials that can be used in making files and their kinds. Milling. General concept and explaining the use of lathe. The ways of operating lathe. Turning tools and minerals used in making them .Drilling and gearing. The angles of tools that used in turnings. Maintenance of lathe. General idea about carpentry. Tools of measuring used in carpentry
Introduction and Definitions: Building a Program - History of C++ Language - Typical C++ Development Environment- The Maine structure of C++ programs - Data type- Variable declaration - Constant declaration - Simple Input/Output. Statement: Arithmetic Operators - Relational Operators - Logical Operators -Assignment Operators - Increment & Decrement Operators -Bitwise Operators - Misc Operators. Conditional (Selection) Statement: if statement - if...else statements - Nested if statements - Switch statement. Iteration (Repetition) statements: while statement - do/while statement - for statement - Nested for statement. Array: Array declaration - Single dimensional array - Multiple –subscripted Arrays - String (1D array of characters) - Array of strings (2D array of characters). Functions: Function Prototypes (declaration) - Calling Function - Function Definition - Passing Arguments functions. Pointers: Advantage of using pointers – pointers in array.
Practical part: Application of Programming by C++.
Introduction to engineering drawing and its uses as engineering Language in industry dimensioning symbols and terms used in drawing, metric system, names and dimensions of lines used in drawings. Lettering and Numerals. Drawing of Geometrical Patterns. Drawing of Sectional Views and Tangents. Isometric Projections. Assembly Drawing and Working Drawing of Simple Electrical and Mechanical Items: Symbols For Electrical and Electronics Engineering Drawing, Size of Drawing Sheets, Dimensioning, Types of Projections, Sectional Views, Drawing of Simple Mechanical Items. Class Designation Letters. Graphical Symbols for Electrical, Electronics and Communications and Systems Engineering: Graphic Symbols for Transmission Path. Graphic Symbols for Contacts, Switches, Contactors, and Relays. Graphic Symbols for Fundamental Items. Graphic Symbols for Transformers, Inductors, and Windings. Graphic Symbols for Semiconductor Devices. Graphic Symbols for Acoustic Devices. Graphic Symbols Commonly Used in Connection with VHF, UHF, SHF Circuits. Graphic Symbols for Composite Assemblies. Graphic Symbols for Analog and Digital Logic Functions. Graphic Symbols Commonly Used on System Diagrams: Maps, and Charts, Reading Datasheets and Manuals
Basic Concepts: Systems of Units, Charge and Current, Voltage, Power and Energy, Circuit Elements, Dependent and Independent Sources, Electrical Resistance and Conductance, Types of Resistors. Basic Laws: Nodes, Branches, and Loops, Planar and Non-planar Circuits, Ohm’s Law, Kirchhoff’s Laws. Circuit Transformations: Series Resistors and Voltage Division, Parallel Resistors and Current Division, Wye-Delta Transformations, Source Transformations. Methods of Analysis: Mesh Analysis, Nodal Analysis. Circuit Theorems: Superposition, Thevenin’s Theorem, Norton’s Theorem, Maximum Power Transfer, Millman’s Theorem, Substitution Theorem, Reciprocity Theorem. Magnetic Circuits: Magnetic Circuit, Definitions, Magnetic Field Strength (H), Magnetic Potential, Flux per Unit Pole, Flux Density (B), Absolute Permeability (m) and Relative Permeability (mr), Intensity of Magnetization (I), Susceptibility (K), Composite Series Magnetic Circuit, How to Find Ampere-turns , Comparison Between Magnetic and Electric Circuits, Parallel Magnetic Circuits, Series-Parallel Magnetic Circuits, Leakage Flux and Hopkinson’s Leakage Coefficient, Magnetization Curves.
Practical part: DC Voltage Measurement. Using the Ohm-meter. Resistor Characteristics. DC Current measurement. Ohm’s Law. Power in a DC Circuit. Series- Parallel network and Kirchhoff's Law. Superposition, Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems.
Sinusoidal Alternating Current Fundamentals: Generation of Alternating Voltages and Currents, Equations of Alternating Voltages and currents, Simple and Complex Waveforms, Basic terminologies, Root Mean Square (R.M.S.) Value, Average Value, Form Factor and Peak Factor. Vectors and Phasors. AC Power Calculations: Active, Reactive and Apparent Power, Power in Complex Form, Power Triangle, Power Factor. Series and Parallel Combinations of AC Circuits: Series Combinations of Various Circuit Elements, Parallel Combinations of Various Circuit Elements. Resonance in AC Circuits: Resonance in series and parallel circuits, Graphical Representation, Quality Factor, Half-power Bandwidth of Resonant Circuit, Bandwidth at any off Resonance Frequency, Determination of Upper and Lower Half-Power Frequencies. Circuit Transformations, Theorem and Analysis in AC Circuits: Series Combinations and Voltage Division, Parallel Combinations and Current Division, Y-Delta Transformations, Source Transformations, Ohm's Law, Kirchhoff’s Laws, Mesh Analysis, Nodal Analysis, Superposition, Thevenin’s Theorem, Norton’s Theorem, Maximum Power Transfer.
Practical part: Maximum Power Transfer Theorem. AC Voltage Measurement. AC Current Measurement. AC RC Circuit. AC RL Circuit. Power in AC Circuit. Lenz’s and Faraday’s Laws. Fleming’s Rule
Diode Circuit Applications: Rectifiers, zener diodes voltage regulators, clipping circuits, clamping circuits and waveform generation. Other Types of Semiconductor Diodes: Varactor diode, tunnel diode, photodiode and photovoltaic (solar) cell, Light Emitting diode, principle and operation of semiconductor laser, semiconductor diode. Transistor biasing: junction transistors (PNP, NPN), current profiles across the junctions, transistor biasing, Field Effect Transistors (FET).
Partial Derivatives: Functions of Several Variables. Limits and Continuity in Higher Dimensions. Partial Derivatives. The Chain Rule. Directional. Derivatives and Gradient Vectors. Tangent Planes and Differentials. Extreme Values and Saddle Points. Lagrange Multipliers. Taylor's Formula for Two Variables. Partial Derivatives with Constrained Variables. Multiple Integrals: Double and Iterated Integrals over Rectangles. Double Integrals over General Regions. Area by Double Integration. Double Integrals in Polar Form. Triple Integrals in Rectangular Coordinates. Triple Integrals in Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates. Substitutions in Multiple Integrals. Integration in Vector Fields: Line Integrals. Vector Fields and Line Integrals: Work, Circulation, and Flux. Path Independence, Conservative Fields, and Potential Functions. Surfaces and Area. Surface Integrals
Partial Differentiation: Function of two or more variables, Partial derivatives, Directional derivative, Gradient, divergence and Curl, Tangent plane and normal line and Maxima, minima & saddle point. Ordinary Differential Equations: First order (variables separable, homogeneous), First order (linear – Bernoulli and exact), Second order (Homogeneous and non-homogeneous) and Higher order differential equations. Sequences and Series: Sequence: convergence, test of monotone. Series: geometric series, nth partial sum. Test of convergence, alternating series and Taylor’s series. Vector Integrals: Equations of lines and planes, Product of three or more vectors, vector function & motion: velocity and acceleration, and Tangential vectors, and Curvature and normal vector.
Bipolar junction transistors: Basic transistor operation, volt-ampere equations for the BJT, regions of operation, graphical analysis of BJT, region of operation stability & compensation graphical analysis of BJT, as an amplifier, small-signal models analysis of CE, CC,CB, and configurations, BJT, as switch current source using BJT. Field effect transistors: DC analysis of FET, the FET as an amplifier, graphical (load lie) analysis small –signal FET models, analysis of CS, CD and CG configurations , using FETs as switch, voltage variable resistor, and constant current source.
Introduction. Classification of signals and systems: Continuous time signals discrete time signals-step, Ramp, Pulse, Impulse, Exponential, Classification of CT and DT signals-periodic and aperiodic, random signals, CT systems and DT systems, Basic properties of systems-Linear time invariant system and properties. Analysis of continuous time signals: Fourier series analysis, Spectrum of C.T. signals, Fourier Transform and its Inverse. Fourier Transform properties. System Frequency response, impulse response, step response, transfer function. Sampling theory of signals: Sampling of CT signals and aliasing, signal reconstruction from sampled signals. Filters: Low pass filters (LPF), High pass filters (HPF), Band pass filters (BPF). Design criteria for each filter: first order, second order, higher order filters design. Hilbert transform and its properties.
Practical part: Signal Representation (continuous time and discrete time). Energy and power of signals. Understanding the characteristics of filters
Introduction. The Lumped-Element Circuit Model for a Transmission Line. Circuit theory for parallel plate transmission line. Two ware transmission line. Coaxial cable transmission line. Electromagnetic wave modes in T.L: TEM wave along a parallel plate T.L. lossy- parallel plate T.L. Generation T.L equation: Wave characteristic on an infinite T.L. T.L. parameters. Attenuation constant from power relations. Wave characteristics of finite T.L.: T.L. as circuit elements. Lines with resistive termination. Lines with arbitrary termination. T.L. circuits. Smith chart: Smith chart calculation for lossy lines. T.L. impedance matching: Impedance matching by quarter wave transformer, Single stub matching
Elementary concepts in probability: Introduction to Probability and Counting, Joint and Conditional Probability, Bayes' theorem Statistical Independence; Bernoulli Trials. Discrete and continues random variables: Cumulative distribution, probability mass, and probability density functions; families of discrete and continuous random variables, expectation; moments, functions of a random variables. Random vectors and variables: Joint, marginal and conditional distributions and densities; correlation, covariance and higher moments; independent, uncorrelated and orthogonal random variables; sum of random variables (and other functions); jointly Gaussian random variables; application to estimation. Random and Stationary Processes. Renewal processes. Queues. The Wiener process. Existence of processes. Stationary processes. Linear prediction. Autocovariances and spectra. Stochastic integration and the spectral representation. The ergodic theorem. Gaussian processes
The Transient Circuit: RC, RL, RLC circuit and parallel and their complete response in time and S- Domain. Poly Phase Circuits: Single- phase three wire system , circle diagram 3- phase balance an Unbalance system star and delta connections Power in 3- phase circuit. Coupling: Magnetic coupling coefficient of coupling, equivalent circuits, linear and ideal transformers.
Introduction to MATLAB: MATLAB Interactive Sessions, Menus and the toolbar, Computing with Matlab, Script files and the Editor Debugger, and Matlab Help System. Arrays: Arrays, Multidimensional Arrays, Element by Element Operations, Polynomial Operations Using Arrays. Functions & Files: Elementary Mathematical Functions, User Defined Functions, Advanced Function Programming, Working with Data Files. Programming Techniques: Program Design and Development, Relational Operators and Logical Variables, Logical Operators and Functions, Conditional Statements, Loops, The Switch Structure, Debugging Mat Lab Programs. Plotting: XY- plotting functions, Subplots and Overlay plots, Special Plot types, Interactive plotting, Function Discovery, 3-D plots. Linear Algebraic Equations: Elementary Solution Methods, solving system of linear equations. Symbolic Processing With Matlab: Symbolic Expressions, Algebra, Calculus (Limits and series), Symbolic Linear Algebra, symbolic plotting. Introduction to Simulink.
Practical part: Introduction to MATLAB. Vectors and Arrays. Linear Algebraic Equations. Functions & Files. Plotting. Programming Techniques. Random number Generation. Symbolic Processing With Matlab
Linear modulation: Amplitude Modulation, Modulation Index, Spectrum of AM Signal, Modulators and Demodulators (Diode detector), DSB-SC Signal and its Spectrum, Balanced Modulator, Synchronous Detectors, SSB Signal, SSB Generation Methods, Power Calculations in AM Systems, Application of AM Systems. Angle Modulation: Phase and Frequency Modulation and their Relationship, Phase and Frequency Deviation, Spectrum of an FM Signal, Bandwidth of Sinusoidally Modulated FM Signal, Effect of the Modulation Index on Bandwidth, Spectrum of Constant Bandwidth FM, Phasor Diagram for FM Signals. FM Generation: Parameter variation method, indirect method of frequency modulation (Armstrong method), frequency multiplication, PLL FM Demodulator, pre-emphasis and de- emphasis. Noise In AM & FM Systems: Sources of noise, resistor noise, shot noise, calculation of noise in a linear system, Noise in AM Systems, Noise in Angle Modulation Systems, Comparison between AM and FM with respect to Noise, Threshold Improvement in Discriminators. Radio transmitters. Radio receivers. Extensions of the super-heterodyne principles, additional circuits.
Practical part: Linear Modulation methods. Angle modulation methods. Noise. Noise in analog modulations (Linear and angle).
Two-Port Network: One- port network, Y-Z-G-H and parameters, image and iterative Operations, Attenuation and phase functions, and insertion loss of Networks. Filters: Constant K– filers, low pass, high pass, and all pass filters, Butterworth and Chebyshev filters, Network transformations, Active filters. General principle of rotating electrical machines, calculation of induced m.f energy, power and torque in DC machines, constructions of DC machines, principle of operation of DC motors, calculation of speed and torque, transformer type and contraction and transformer action.
Practical part: Two-Port Network. Attenuation. Filters: Constant K– filers, low pass, high pass, and all pass filters, Butterworth and Chebyshev filters, Network transformations, Active filters
Multistage amplifier: Analysis of multistage amplifiers (voltage gain, current gain, etc.), and types of multistage amplifiers (cascade….etc.). Tuned amplifiers: Transformer- coupled amplifiers; signal- tuned, and tapped and double tuned amplifiers. Introduction to four-layer devices: Description and operation of silicon control rectifier, disc, thirstier, GTO, and triac. Feedback Amplifier, Op-Amp and Application.
Practical part: Transistor Characteristics. Transistor Amplifier Circuits (Single and multistage). FET Characteristics. FET Amplifier Circuits (Single and multistage).
Review of probability and random variables. Introduction to information measurement, the types of entropies and channel capacity: Source of information; uncertainly; information & entropy; joint and conditional entropies ; mutual information; discrete memory-less channels; channel model BSC; channel capacity. The techniques of source coding and data compression: Mathematical Model of Information Source; Huffman Coding; Shannon-Fano Codes; Types of Errors. Error control coding (channel coding): Source Of Errors; Information Rate; Galois Field Modem Algebra; Taxonomy Of Codes; Linear Block Codes; Minimum Distance & Correction; Hamming Code BCH Codes; Cyclic Code; Reed-Solomon Code; Convolution Encoder; ( Connection Of Convolution, Representation, Code Tree, Trellis Diagram, State Diagram); Maximum Likelihood Decoding; Viterbi Algorithm
Modeling, Computers, and Error Analysis. Roots of Equations: Bracketing Methods: Graphical Methods, The Bisection Method, The False-Position Method, Incremental Searches and Determining Initial Guesses; Open Methods: Simple Fixed-Point Iteration, The Newton-Raphson Method, The Secant Method, Multiple Roots, Systems of Nonlinear Equations. Roots of Polynomials: polynomials in Engineering and Science, Computing with Polynomials, Conventional Methods, Müller’s Method, Bairstow’s Method. Linear Algebraic Equations: Gauss Elimination: Solving Small Numbers of Equations, Naïve Gauss Elimination, Pitfalls of Elimination Methods, Nonlinear Systems of Equations, Gauss-Jordan; LU Decomposition and Matrix Inversion: LU Decomposition, The Matrix Inverse, Error Analysis and System Condition. Optimization: One-Dimensional Unconstrained Optimization: Golden-Section Search, Quadratic Interpolation, Newton’s Method; Multidimensional Unconstrained Optimization: Direct Methods, Gradient Methods; Constrained Optimization: Linear Programming, Nonlinear Constrained Optimization.
Introduction to Control Systems: History and basic definition of open loop system and closed loop control system. Laplace Transform: Laplace transform, Inverse Laplace transform, Properties of Laplace transform, Applications in communication systems. Transfer function: Transfer function of electrical and mechanical system. Block diagram: Block diagram reduction, Signal flow graph and Mason law. Time response: Typical test signals, poles, zeros, types of system (second order and first order) and steady state error. Stability: Rout criterion and root locus. Frequency response techniques: Bode plots, Nyquist diagram, phase margin and gain margin
Introduction: Basic Elements of Digital Communication Systems, Communication Channels. Pulse Modulation Techniques: PAM, PWM, PPM. PCM, DPCM, DM, Adaptive Delta Modulation (ADM), Noise in pulse modulations. Digital Modulation Techniques: ASK, PSK, FSK, QPSK, DPSK, DEPSK, MSK, M-ary-FSK, M-ary-PSK, QAM, M-ary-QAM. Optimum Receivers for the AWGN Channel: Receiver for Signals Corrupted by AWGN, Performance of Memoryless Modulation, Trade off of power, bandwidth, data rate, and error probability. Multiplexing Techniques: TDM, FDM, applications.
Practical part: Representation of Digital Signals. Pulse Modulations. M-PSK Modem. M-FSK Modem. QAM Modem.TDM. FDM
Fundamental Concepts: Physical concept of radiation, Radiation pattern, near- and far-field regions, reciprocity, directivity and gain, effective aperture, polarization, input impedance, efficiency, Friis transmission equation, radiation integrals and auxiliary potential functions. Radiation from Wires and Loops: Infinitesimal dipole, finite-length dipole, linear elements near conductors, dipoles for mobile communication, small circular loop. Aperture Antennas: Huygens’ principle, radiation from rectangular and circular apertures, design considerations, Babinet’s principle, Radiation from sectoral and pyramidal horns, design concepts. Broadband Antennas: Broadband concept, Log-periodic antennas, frequency independent antennas. Microstrip Antennas: Basic characteristics of microstrip antennas, feeding methods, methods of analysis, design of rectangular and circular patch antennas. Antenna Arrays: Analysis of uniformly spaced arrays with uniform and non-uniform excitation amplitudes, extension to planar arrays. Basic Concepts of Smart Antennas: Concept and benefits of smart antennas, Fixed weight beam forming basics, Adaptive beam forming.
Practical part: Basics and Introduction. Far field, Standing Wave Ratio, Polarization, Radiation Pattern for different antennas, Gain calculations, Antenna arrays, Smart antennas
Analog to Digital (A/D) and Digital to Analog (D/A) Conversion. Discrete Fourier Transform: Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT), Relationship between Fourier transform and Fourier series. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT): Definition, Applications, Decimation in time FFT (DIF-FFT), Decimation in Frequency FFT (DIF-FFT). Z-transform: Introduction to the Z-transform, Inverse Z-transforms, Properties of Z-transforms, Transfer Functions. Digital Filter Design: Discrete Time Filters, Design by using numerical solution, bilinear transformation, Design IIR filter using bilinear method, Analog Design using digital filter, Digital Design using digital to digital transformation, Design of finite impulse response filter (FIR), Design of FIR using windows methods, FIR design computer techniques. Realization of Digital Filters. Introduction to Statistical Signal Processing: Signal Models: types and properties of statistical models for signals. Signal Characterization: common second-order methods of characterizing signals, autocorrelation, power spectral density, and cross-power spectral density. Spectral Estimation: nonparametric methods, autocorrelation, cross-correlation, transfer functions, and coherence from finite signal samples. Optimum Linear Filters, Least Squares Estimation, Parametric Signal Modeling and Estimation.
Introduction to microcontroller (Hardware / IDE overview). Introduction to DSP Processors (Hardware / IDE overview). Examples: Blinking LEDs, Fading of LED, Circling of LEDs (FOR loop). Serial monitoring: Controlling of LEDs from computer, Reading analog and digital inputs. Digital inputs: Controlling LED using push button. Switching ON a relay. Analog inputs: Controlling a DC motor (PWM), Changing the brightness of LEDs using potentiometers, LCD displays: Wiring of LCD screen with Arduino, Displaying a message in LCD screen, Screen navigation on LCD, Turn ON a LED by entering the password, Knowing the status of the LED, Scrolling of text, Displaying room temperature using LM 35 temperature sensor. Seven segment display: Simple automatic countdown and count up (FOR loop), Increment or decrement a number by using push button. Servo motors: Indexing of Servo motor, Direction control of Servo Motor.
Practical part: Various applications using Arduino microcontroller.
Oscillators: Positive feedback and oscillation, Stability of Oscillation, Sinusoidal oscillator, Phase-shift Oscillator, Wien Bridge Oscillator, LC-Oscillator, Crystal Oscillator. Large-Signal Amplifier: Amplifier classification, Class A, Class B, Class AB, Class C, Power field-effect Transistor, Integrated Circuit power amplifier, Push-pull. OP-AMP amplifiers, Integration using OP-AMP, differentiation using OP-AMP. Oscillators using OP-AMP, 555 timer and applications. voltage control oscillator using 555 timer.
Practical part: Oscillators, Amplifiers, OP-AMP applications, 555-timer applications, voltage control oscillator
Overview of Optical Fiber Wave Guides: General system, transmission link, advantage of optical fiber communication ,basic structure of optical fiber waveguide, ray theory transmission, optical fiber modes and configuration, step index & graded index fiber, single mode fiber , fiber materials , fiber fabrication. Signal Degradation in Optical Fiber: attenuation, intrinsic & extrinsic absorption losses, linear & nonlinear scattering losses , bending losses , distortion in optical wave guide, intramodal and intermodal dispersion. Power launching and coupling Source to fiber power launching, power calculation, lensing schemes, fiber to fiber joints , fiber splicing technique , fiber connectors. Optical Sources: LASER basic concepts of laser, Optical emission from semiconductors. Detectors: p-n photodiodes, p-i-n photodiodes, Avalanche photodiodes, Quantum efficiency, speed of response, Phototransistor. Optical Receiver: Receiver operation, digital receiver noise, shot noise, pre-amplifier types, Digital receiver performance, introduction to analog receivers. Digital Transmission Systems: Point to point links, system considerations, link power budget, rise time budget, modulation formats for analog communication system, introduction to WDM concepts, Introduction to advanced multiplexing strategies
Introduction to classical signal detection theory and statistical signal processing, Law of large numbers and central limit theorem. Jointly Gaussian random vectors and their properties. Hypothesis testing and detection: Maximum likelihood (ML), maximum a posterior probability (MAP), and Bayes criteria; Likelihood ratios, Neyman-Pearson test. Estimation: Minimum mean-square (MMSE) and linear least square estimation, orthogonality principle; Recursive estimation, Kalman filtering; Parameter estimation, Cramer-Rao bound; Sparsity and compressed sensing
Characterization of Fading Multipath Channels, The Effect of Signal Characteristics on the Choice of a Channel Model, Diversity Techniques, Digital Signaling over a Frequency-Selective, Slowly Fading Channel, Binary and M-ary Signaling over a Frequency-Nonselective, Slowly Fading Channel, Coded Waveforms for Fading Channel, Probability of Error. Hard and Soft Decision, Performance of Convolution Codes, Constant Weight and Concatenated Codes, Analysis and Performance of TCM for Fading Channels. Model of a Spread Spectrum Communications System, DS Spread spectrum Signals, Rake Receivers, Multi-user Detection, Frequency Hopped Spread Spectrum Signals, Other types of Spread Spectrum Signals, Spread Spectrum in multipath channels. Multiple Access Techniques (CDMA, TDMA, FDMA, SDMA), Capacity of Multiple Access Systems. Path Loss and Shadowing; Tx-Rx signal models; free-space path loss; ray tracing; empirical path-loss models. Statistical multipath channels: Time varying channel impulse response; narrowband fading models; wideband fading models. Capacity in AWGN; Capacity of flat-fading channels; channel and system model; channel distribution information (CDI) known; channel side information at transmitter and receiver; capacity with receiver diversity; capacity of frequency-selective fading channels.
Practical part: Visualization of Propagation Channels. Transmission of Binary Signals through Multipath Channels. DS-CDMA, TDMA, FDMA, FH-SSS, Rake Receiver. Path Loss and Shadowing. Time Varying Channel Impulse Response
This course introduces the ethical and professional responsibilities and develops engineering skills. The Engineer and engineering disciplines, Engineering Ethics Problem Solving, Introduction to engineering design, Engineering Communications Literature search skills. Definition of management, management duties, scientific management, management and other sciences, deployment activities, advertisements, products transfer, products storing, financial resources and risks, production factors, types of productions, markets, incomes and costs of productions
Topics will vary in accordance with the specific project assigned. Work-Analytical, design, experimental, or fieldwork carried out in accordance with a preapproved project plan under the supervision of faculty member(s).
Note: The Graduation project is an annual subject, starts at the first semester of level four and ends at the second semester of level four year. In each semester, the weight is (2-0-0-4), that is, overall will be (4-0-0-8).
Introduction to RF and Microwave Engineering: RF and Microwave Engineering. Communication Over Distance. Review of Electromagnetic Theory. Radio Architecture. Conventional Wireless Communications. RF Power Calculations. Transmission Lines and Wave Guides: General Solutions for TEM, TE, and TM waves. Parallel Plate Waveguide. Rectangular Waveguide, Circular Waveguide. Coaxial Line. Surface Waves on a Grounded Dielectric Sheet. Striplines, Microstrip Lines. The Transverse Resonance Technique. Wave Velocities and Dispersion. Microwave Network Analysis: Impedance and Equivalent Voltages. Impedance and Admittance Matrices. The Scattering Matrix. The Transmission (ABCD) Matrix. Signal Flow Graphs. Discontinuities and Modal Analysis. Excitation of Waveguides. Impedance Matching: Impedance Transforming Networks. The L-Matching Network. Dealing with Complex Loads. Multi element Matching. Impedance Matching Using Smith Charts. Distributed Matching. Practical part: Gun Oscillator. Power Measurement in X- Band. Measurement of Frequency in X-Band. Propagation Modes, Wavelength and Phase Velocity in Waveguide. Aperture Antenna with Measurement of Gain
Diversity Techniques: Data transmission using multiple carriers; multicarrier modulation with overlapping subchannels; mitigation of subcarrier fading; discrete implementation of multicarrier; challenges in multicarrier systems. Adaptive Modulation and Coding: Adaptive transmission system; adaptive techniques; variable-rate Variable-power MQAM; General M-Ary modulation. Multicarrier Modulation and OFDM: Data Transmission using Multiple Carrier; Multicarrier Modulation with overlapping subchannels; Mitigation of subcarrier fading; discrete implementation of multicarrier; challenges in multicarrier systems. MIMO Communications: Narrowband MIMO model; Parallel Decomposition of the MIMO channel; MIMO channel capacity; MIMO diversity Gain: beamforming; diversity-multiplexing trad-off; space-time modulation and coding. Introduction to LTE: The Evolution of Cellular System; Transmission Scheme and scheduling of LTE; Inter-Cell Interference Coordination; what are Heterogeneous Cellular Networks (HetNet)?; Multi-Antenna Transmission in LTE; spectrum flexibility; LTE Release 10; Gigabit MIMO Transmission and Relaying; Terminal Capabilities; Radio-Interference Architecture: Core Network; Design Principles of LTE; Network Architecture. Introduction to Cognitive Radio
Cellular Overview: History of Mobile Communications, Evolution of Cellular: from pre-1G to 4G, Licensing Issues. Cellular Concept and Design: Hexagons and Channelization. Handoff, Interference vs. Capacity, Trunking, Grade of Service, Erlang Computations Cell Splitting and Sectoring. Mobile Signals Propagation: Basic Equations and Mechanisms, Free Space Loss, Flat Earth Loss, Diffraction and Scattering, Longley-Rice and OH Loss Models, Okamura-Hata, COST-231, and Extensions, Walfisch, Ikagami, and Bertoni. Small Scale Fading and Multipath: Doppler Shift, Impulse Response and the Cellular Channel, Time Dispersion and Flat vs Frequency Selective Fading, Coherence Time and Fast vs Slow Fading, Rayleigh and Ricean Distributions, Fading Statistics. Evolution to Modern Systems: Diversity and Downtilting, CDMA and Processing Gain, CDMA Capacity Calculations, OFDMA Concepts, LTE and Frequency Reuse, MIMO and Beamforming
Introduction to Information Security - Classical Cryptosystems and Cryptanalysis. Shannon’s Approach to Cryptography and Symmetric Key Cryptography. Cryptographic Hash Functions and Authentication. Public Key Cryptosystems and Digital Signatures. Distribution and Agreement Keys Protocols and Network Security
General Overview: Types of Satellite Communications Systems, Transmission path, Path Loss. Antennas. Propagation. Noise, C0/N0, C/N, Saturation Flux Density, Effective Isotropic Radiated Power, Up - Link Power Received, Down –Link Power Received. Orbital Mechanics: Basic Equations. Special Orbits. Geometry and Movement. Constellations. Real World Effects. RF and Licensing Issues. Detailed Link Budget Considerations: Antennas. Transmitters. Propagation and Rain. Receivers, LNAs, Figure of Merit. Total System Performance, Multi Beam coverage. Earth Station: Earth Station Organization , Transmitting and Receiving Equipment, Redundancy. Additional Topics: Telemetry and Tracking. Power Limitations. Spacecraft Control. Reliability
Microwave Network Analysis: Two-Port Networks, Scattering Parameters, The N-Port Network, Scattering Parameter Matrices of Common Two-Ports, Scattering Parameter Relationships, Parameters and Coupled Lines. Design and analysis of microwave filters: Periodic Structures, Image Parameters, Insertion Loss, Transformations, Implementation, Stepped-Impedance Low-Pass Filters, Coupled Line Filters, Coupled Resonators. Noise Analysis of Two-Port Circuits. Active Devices for Microwave Circuits. Amplifiers Designs. RF and Microwave System Design.
Practical part: Standing Waves Measurement, Attenuator Calibrations, Transmissions and Reflections, Quality and Bandwidth of a Resonance Cavity, Field Distribution
Introduction to Navigation Systems and Coordinate and time systems. Satellite orbital motions. GPS observables: Pseudo ranges, Carrier phases, SA/AS, Format of data (RINEX). Estimation procedures: Stochastic and mathematical models, Propagation of covariance matrices, Sequential estimation, Kalman filtering, Statistics in least-squares estimation. Propagation medium: Troposphere, Ionosphere, Multipath. Mathematical model of GPS observables. Methods of processing GPS data. Applications: Applications and examples of GPS data analysis along with other space geodetic data